Clearing Archive Roboposter
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Fri Dec 28 06:06:02 EST 2018
According to Maslow, there are general types of needs (physiological,
safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act
unselfishly. He called these needs "deficiency needs." As long as we are
motivated to satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward
self-actualization. Satisfying needs is healthy, blocking gratification
makes us sick or evil. In other words, we are all "needs junkies" with
cravings that must be satisfied and should be satisfied. Else, we become
Needs are prepotent. A prepotent need is one that has the greatest
influence over our actions. Everyone has a prepotent need, but that need
will vary among individuals. A teenager may have a need to feel that
he/she is accepted by a group. A heroin addict will need to satisfy
his/her cravings for heroin to function normally in society, and will not
worry about acceptance by other people. According to Maslow, when the
deficiency needs are met:
At once other (and higher) needs emerge, and these, rather than
physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are
satisfied, again new (and still higher) needs emerge, and so on. As one
desire is satisfied, another pops up to take its place.
Physiological needs are the very basic needs such as air, water, food,
sleep, sex, etc. When these are not satisfied we may feelsickness,
irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. These feelings motivate us to alleviate
them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. Once they are
alleviated, we may think about other things.
Safety needs have to do with establishing stability and consistency in a
chaotic world. These needs are mostly psychological in nature. We need the
security of a home and family. However, if a family is dysfunction, i.e.,
an abusive husband, the wife cannot move to the next level because she is
constantly concerned for her safety. Love and belongingness have to wait
until she is no longer cringing in fear. Many in our society cry out for
law and order because they do not feel safe enough to go for a walk in
their neighborhood. Many people, particularly those in the inner cities,
unfortunately, are stuck at this level. In addition, safety needs
sometimes motivate people to be religious. Religions comfort us with the
promise of a safe secure place after we die and leave the insecurity of
Love and belongingness are next on the ladder. Humans have a desire to
belong to groups: clubs, work groups, religious groups, family, gangs, etc.
We need to feel loved (non-sexual) by others, to be accepted by others.
Performers appreciate applause. We need to be needed. Beer commercials, in
addition to playing on sex, also often show how beer makes for camaraderie.
When was the last time you saw a beer commercial with someone drinking
There are two types of esteem needs. First is self-esteem which results
from competence or mastery of a task. Second, there's the attention and
recognition that comes from others. This is similar to the belongingness
level, however, wanting admiration has to do with the need for power.
People who have all of their lower needs satisfied, often drive very
expensive cars because doing so raises their level of esteem. "Hey, look
what I can afford-peon!"
The need for self-actualization is "the desire to become more and more
what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming." People
who have everything can maximize their potential. They can seek knowledge,
peace, esthetic experiences, self-fulfillment, oneness with God, etc. It
is usually middle-class to upper-class students who take up environmental
causes, join the Peace Corps, go off to a monastery, etc.
Lifted from http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM for discussion relative
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Fri Dec 28 06:06:02 EST 2018
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Learning implies Learning with Certainty or Learning without Certainty.
Learning across a Distance implies Learning by Being an Effect.
Learning by Being an Effect implies Learning without Certainty.
Therefore, Learning with Certainty implies Learning, but
not by Being an Effect, and not across a Distance.
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